Sunday, January 31, 2010
Saturday, January 30, 2010
It’s Saturday night, and I’m reading an ID book. Just because.
[I ordered it used a few weeks ago. When I opened the package on Friday, the nostalgic aroma of the library stacks hit me. Oh how I love the smell of books!]
Consider the following my highlights and margin notes on the first chapter.
Instructional design, defined:
“The discipline of instructional design is concerned primarily with prescribing optimal methods of instruction to bring about desired changes in student knowledge and skills.” (p.4) (my emphasis in bold italics)
Instructional Design is “a ‘linking science’ between learning theory and educational practice.” (p. 5)
Curriculum vs. instruction:
“curriculum is concerned primarily with what to teach, whereas instruction is concerned primarily with how to teach.” (p. 6)
What does an ID do?
“Instructional scientists want to determine when different methods should be used – they want to discover principles of instruction – so that they can prescribe optimal methods.” (p. 12)
Understanding the difference between theories of instructional design and theories of learning:
Theory of ID focuses on methods of instruction – what the teacher does; theory of learning focuses on the learning process – what happens to the learner.
“…much of what is called instructional theory is really learning theory. Instructional-design theory is relatively easy to apply in the classroom because it spells out methods of instruction. Learning theory is usually difficult to apply in the classroom because it does not spell out methods of instruction; at best it spells out ‘conditions of learning’” (p. 23)
This is my aside:
Very interesting to read an almost 30 year old book. In the intro Reigeluth talks about the 25-year old field of instructional design. 30 years later many things have changed, but probably not as much as one might have hoped…??
Have you read this book?
Friday, January 29, 2010
When Karl Kapp invited me to join the blog book tour for Learning in 3D, he dangled a little carrot in front of me. Apparently, I make a cameo appearance. So I am reading this book as a scavenger hunt (leave it to Karl to turn it into a game!)…my narcissistic antennae all aquiver.
For those of you who don’t already know, this book is Karl Kapp’s and Tony O’Driscoll’s homage to the 3D Learning Environment – a glimpse to the future of education and training (“the learning function”) and how it needs to evolve in order to stay relevant.
My Experience in Virtual Worlds
Karl kindly offered to give me a tour – and so there we were – flying around, looking at drills, walking through computer parts. I remember laughing out loud in my office when I just disappeared at some point by accident.
I dabbled in SL a bit after that, chronicled my Second Life experiences on my blog, but I haven’t been “in world” in probably two years. Since then, I have sorely neglected my avatar, Bliss Yue. This week I downloaded SL onto my current laptop and went and said hi. I haven’t had much time with her yet, but mean to go spend some quality time and see how SL has evolved since my last visit.
I get the virtual worlds immersive learning environment thingie. I see the potential, think it’s where we’re going, but don’t think we’re quite ready for prime time. Not yet.
What’s Really Going On Out There?
I can’t help but making connections to some of what I heard this week out in Las Vegas at ASTD Tech Knowledge 2010.
Allison Rossett presented findings from a survey of almost 1,000 people about actual eLearning practices. One of the bottom 5 eLearning practices that people are doing today? “Authentic, realistic and immersive, like Second Life”.
As to future aspirations – what organizations are trying to do: “Authentic & Immersive Experiences” came in #7 on the list.
So immersive learning is indeed something people want to do. I guess the question is when?
Sadly, I left Las Vegas without getting to meet Karl in person! He presented this morning at ASTD on Learning in 3D.
It’s Not About Instructional Design…
The book is chock full of background, blueprints and case studies. I’ve taken pages of notes and clipped many a standout quotes, but especially wanted to share this quote from Randy Hinrichs of 2b3d:
“It’s Not About Instructional Design, It’s About Experiential Design -- Yes, we must gain the learner’s attention, inform them of learning objectives, stimulate recall, present new material, provide learning guidance, elicit performance, provide feedback and correctness, assess performance, and enhance retention and recall. But with today’s carnival of content, mixed media, and unlimited access to new information, we must also create a story for the learner in which he or she is the main character.” (p. 88 - Randy Hinrichs, CEO of 2b3d)
It’s a practical book, laying lays out eleven “archetypes” that you can use to design virtual world experiences. Think instructional strategies – e.g., a scavenger hunt can be a great way to teach declarative knowledge and facts or orient new hires to a building layout.
- Avatar persona
- Role play
- Scavenger Hunt
- Guided Tour
- Small Group Work
- Group Forum
- Social Networking
- Operational application
- Conceptual orienteering
- Critical incident
On page 98, you see a screen shot of Abbot Bundy talking to a “pot plant”. Alrightie then. I thought maybe things had gone a little wacky here and we were entering some kind of weed growing simulation, but then I realized it was “potted plants”. :)
I do indeed make a cameo appearance. Well, Cammy doesn’t make a cameo, but Bliss Yue does. See if you can find her. I’ll give you a free subscription to my blog if you do!
Bottom line? Thumbs up! Definitely a must read if you want to be a part of the future – if you want to stay relevant as a learning professional.
Get a 20% discount off of the book by using the code L3D1 at the Pfieffer/Wiley web site at http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470504730.html
Check out the book’s website here: www.learningin3d.info
And thank you, Karl, for inviting me to participate in the blog book tour again.
Thursday, January 28, 2010
My live blogged notes…ASTD TechKnowledge 2010 in Las Vegas, NV.
Recap of her recent article for ASTD: e-Learning – What’s Old is New Again
When you say you’re doing elearning what are you doing? The big names talk about how web 2.0 is turning courses on their heads (Downes, Rosenberg…)
Here’s how Rossett created survey:
Step 1: Defined what’s in and what’s out
- what are people doing today?
- what are aspirations for the future?
- barriers to elearning today?
- (didn’t ask about quality, efficiency, satisfaction)
Step 2: Defined the options
They constructed 26 snapshots (options derived from literature, conferences, blogs, etc.) – e.g., “Our programs are delivered in a virtual classroom. Employees join an instructor and classmates at a scheduled time.” or “Our programs are delivered on mobile devices.”
Step 3: Piloted and edited
Step 4: Solicited participation from 5 sources – elearning guild, learning circuits, trainingindustry.com, ISPI, PINOTnet.ning.com)
This is not a random sample, but rather opportunistic! Self-selected people who are already out in tech circles.
953 respondents to survey.
The results are suggestive and provocative. Take them home and engage in conversations with your colleagues. Use this data to advance dialogue within your organization.
So what do you think is typical of practice today? Are you doing any of these in your organization?
- personalized learning programs
- tests of skills and knowledge
- online discussions after class
- mobile devices and delivery
- virtual classroom, then archived and available as needed
- scenario-based online programs
Top 5 practices (these are the most common, but still not that common – showing there are no typical practices!):
- Our programs included test of skills and knowledge
- We use computers as part of classroom instruction
- Our programs present content and opps to practice and receive feedback. Employees work on these tutorials at a time of own choosing.
- Our programs use visuals with an audio track. Ees watch and listen at time of choosing.
- Our programs are based on realistic scenarios which presss employees to make choices and learn from the results of those choices.
Bottom ranking practices:
- Mobile devices
- Virtual classrooms.
- Authentic, realistic and immersive, like Second Life
- Include access to e-coaches
- Include expectations that employees will participate in online discussions as follow up to a class. [The problem is that we focus on the event - ‘the event’s the thing.’ Need to make expectations clear – this is not just a nice to have, but an important part of the story. Rossett grades students’ papers, but also their comments in the discussion board. Don’t ask ‘what do you think of article?’, instead ask to ‘compare and contrast’, make question useful and real ‘how would you sell this into this market?’…]
What of you? Which best describes you as you think about the many possible manifestations for e-learning?
- We are using technology in many ways
- We are doing a few things, but not many
- We do one thing
What of blended learning? (Blended = some of this, some of that, bound together)
- Lots going on
- Not so much
Why blends? -- it’s like a good dinner, multi-modal, has variety and autonomy…
Rossett’s best reason for blends: lessons, information and support (performance and coaching) goes where the need is – into the workplace (need to keep your blend from flopping around).
What of the much touted 2.0?
- Lots going on
- Not so much
[Data of the crowd in the session is matching data from her survey results.]
Second Life – figures debating the benefits of first life: http://tinyurl.com/ylfksgh Very fresh!
Top 10 Aspirations (out of 26) – asked to pick your top 3 aspirations:
- Personalized learning (21.4%)
- Problem solving, Knowledge Construction (21.3%)
- Measurement for Program Improvement (19.4%)
- Mobile Learnng & Support (18.4%)
- Employee generated Content (17.2%)
- Online Networks & Collab (16.3%)
- Authentic & Immersive Experiences (15.1%)
- Performance Support (15.1%)
- Assessment Point People to Relevant Programs (15%)
- Scenario based ELearning (14.3%)
But looking at results – there is no cluster. Web 2.0 is high on the list…
- We can’t afford
- Difficult to move people to learn in new ways (Rossett thinks the issue is the employees we train, but the # one key figure to get more out of tech – supervisors/manager).
- Our tech is not up to these approaches
- Employees hesitate to contribute to social networks and communities
- Our customers and clients prefer classroom instruction
Current professional practice does not match what we hear at conferences, on blogs, etc.
Clayton Christenson ~ “we incrementally improve what we’re doing today, we tinker with courseware, instead of taking advantage of learning disruption that is happening all around us!”
Current practice is more additive than supplantive (disruptive) – we add a podcast to a current course. Don’t start with the status quo and then make it a little better…
Look at great practice and tease out what great managers do: www.Positivedeviance.org
Are we over cautious – should we do MORE?
What does it mean?
- Instructional design is still alive.
- Scattershot practice – no one way, few shared habits.
- Little of 2.0 yet.
- Where are the mobile devices? eCoaching?
- Preference for individual strategies (more than ‘social’) – more excited about individualization – a program just for me…
- Leaders reported more of everything than practitioners
What are YOU going to do? What are you going to do differently?
Weigh in please – http://tinyurl.elearningpractice -- Add your data to the set, see what the 26 snapshots are, etc. Make Allison’s dreams come true – sit around with your colleagues and talk about the 26 snapshots, talk about the opportunities…
For the record, Allison Rossett is an awesome presenter!! Funny, engaging, opinionated and lots of expertise.
This are my liveblogged notes from Thursday, January 28 Keynote at ASTD TechKnowledge 2010 in Las Vegas, NV.
Richard Hilleman, the man behind the EA sports brand (Madden football) -- currently focused on EA’s internal university.
…but their actions don’t.
This is the most important trend in video game design.
(When people lie, they make his job harder).
Who is Richard Hilleman?
Worked for EA for 25 years. Since 1983. In the business of making video games. producer, designer, production manager, has run studios, has been a teacher. Now Chief Creative Director. A guy with a high school education. Doesn’t have a traditional background. Embraces change. And stirs things up.
At EA - people make games and they like to play games.
Cartels and Cutthroats – an economic simulation game – at their company retreat they had a tournament.
EA University Knowledge Changes Everything
Producers and designers – at EA – the business is so unique. Have spent a lot of time to invest in those capabilities.
Creative Directors Accelerator
creative director is like the director of a movie – they only have about 20 creative directors at EA. Needed to invest in most senior designers. Year long program. Meet once a quarter. Run through a specific curriculum. Specific report cards. Training built out of training in a really structured way.
Built an exercise around Lego Mindstorms
In his classes – need to learn about leadership and teamwork. So create games that use computers in one component, but most of game built on human interaction.
Rapid iteration cycle
Lego Mindstorms – The Game:
In one day create a simulation of a 4 year product/platform lifecycle (game platforms change every 4 years – e.g., playstation 3 1/2.)
- Everyone plays “out of position” – engineers plays producers, producers play programmers, etc.
- Each team attends a developer’s conference to learn technology
- (Espionage encouraged)
- Producer from each team gets access to a close room at the top of the hour (The Market)
- That Market contains a number of 9x9” plexiglass squares with Play Money. (turned the floor into the 2D plane of the market analysis)
- During the market cycle – robot has to drive through the room and stop on a moneyed square.
- Markets get more difficult – squares moved, money amounts changed, obstacles added
- At end of 10 minutes, get the money under the square.
- The market you see in the focus group isn’t exactly what you get
- More than one team can win a square and robots don’t play nice.
- Wheels don’t always have to stay attached (nuances of design encourage creativity)
- Create change – how they work with each other – dynamic of market and dynamic of team.
- Winners always have combo of appropriate risk and high iteration cycle.
- In those 45 minutes between rounds – their iteration cycle looks like 5-10x the number of market cycles (which is what they want).
Some other games:
- The “gong” show – rapid prototyping – dynamic thinking on feet, creative direction
- The Pieces Game – looks like a game design exercise, but a the end it’s about listening.
- The Roaring silence – to teach audio direction. Audio is 50% of experience = George Lucas. Audio costs are %10 of cost of game!
How we used to make games – really smart kids working on games until they think they are done…that doesn’t work anymore!
Now have bigger teams – so higher costs – lower margins.
Can’t say “I’ll know when it’s done” anymore…
Have changed leadership strategies –Why was it failing? Because they are guessing about what people are telling them.
The problem is…PEOPLE LIE. (They don’t mean to.) But their actions don’t.
Every online game played in John Madden for the past year phones home…it reports button presses, the timing, lots of detailed information.
The data showed that madden 10 had a kicking problem – their telemetry showed it. A playing mechanic for kicking that didn’t work. Took data from those reports, showed video tape of person playing…
This kind of process (telemetry based analysis) – changes everything you do as a designer.
Google – semantic analysis – take text that you have typed and try to make sense of it. Problem with that…people lie.
Amazon - -thinks about what you do. Mining your previous choices and correlating that to other customers (based on actions – not what you say).
Stop guess, start measuring!
- Identify your markers of progress that matter (objective measurements – subject measurements fall into the people lie category).
- Turn scoreboards on so all can see.
- Pay attention to the results
- iterate for effect
- Demonstrate and callibrate progress through metrics
- Pursue new markers and correlations for the insight they provide
Example of using technology in a more traditional education environment (teaching kids how to spell better, improve vocabulary).
- Have all class do composition in Google Docs. (use python scripts to process web data). Every day, mine that class directory for data.
- Updates metrics on your scoring spreadsheet. students scores are updated daily.
- Outcomes: best practices are telemetrically reinforced. Instruction time is spent editing and correcting for quality, clarity and meaning (and not mechanics)
- more face time, less grading
Telemetry based Developement Programs
- Diff between clients and customers: customers are looking for a measurable ROI; clients looking for personal progress
- Avoid diff scoreboards for diff audiences
- measured progress metrics ensure all parties’ development outcome = business outcomes
People lie – don’t trust, don’t guess. Their actions don’t.
Find metrics to measure. align metrics of personl progress with indicators of enterprise success (OUTCOMES)
Communicate progress and value through scoreboards of those metrics – when the metric matters to people they obsess on it and it improves their performance.
(Prius is first video game car – it comes with a high score!)
Bottom line – people lie – so need to measure on objective metrics.
Sim City source code is now open source! Can be used for educational
Why games become social – we love playing with human beings – more challenging and interesting than playing against a computer
What tools can corporates use to incorporate gaming (“I know a lot of tools, but it’ll take you 3 years to figure out how to use them!”)
Sims – 25% of game market and primarily women. This year women took over the video game business!
Products like Instant Action (simplified game engine, Seashark – need to be a programmer ), Flash! We still haven’t figured out how to make this easy.
Tools like Google Analytics can be used to measure your Flash…
(Q&A session still going…I’m off to the Expo – booth babe duty!)
Saturday, January 23, 2010
Are you going to ASTD TechKnowledge this week in Las Vegas?
Join me on the Expo floor Wednesday and Thursday.
Just stop by Kineo Booth #407 and say hi.
I’ll perform showtunes by request and talk eLearning shop talk by default.
(And maybe you’re still asking yourself that. And maybe you haven’t really grown up yet.)
As a 9-year old kid, did you think, “I wanna be a firefighter, a doctor, a teacher…or maybe…an instructional designer!”
I suspect that few of those who now practice the fine art and science of instructional design, started off early in life with that vision. In fact, many of us found our way here by accident.
At what point did it dawn on you that this was your calling, your passion, your profession? Or, at least, the way you would pay your bills?
Me? I wanted to be a writer or a teacher. I feel lucky that I now get to do both in one neat little package. I’ve shared my story before – my route to instructional design. Although my post is a few years old, the past hasn’t changed.
I’m interested to hear your story. Please share in the comments here or post on your blog and leave a link.
Photo: “Girl at Window” by Cammy Bean
Friday, January 22, 2010
Sunday, January 17, 2010
One recent Saturday night, I found myself up late. Me, a Rubik’s Cube and my laptop.
What’s with me and the Cube? I’ll try and explain…
My 6 1/2 yr old son got a 2x2 mini-Rubik Cube for Christmas. I was driving him somewhere, while he sat in the back struggling to figure it out. His version of swear words, for sure. He was struggling. He did get one side. Smart kid.
Being the good mom I am, I thought “I should try and help him figure that out. Give him some pointers.”
Now, back when the Rubik’s Cube first came out, I was a wee lass of about 12. I know this, because on my Saturday night geek night, I read the wikipedia article on the Rubik’s Cube. (The Cube turns 30 this year!)
I spent many hours working that thing over as twelve year old. I have vague memories of patterns – nothing I could replicate now – but spin up two times, then left once, then down twice. I know I solved that Cube many times.
(And yes, some of the early attempts did include removing stickers. We all did it. Admit it. So did you.)
I think I had the book and must’ve memorized the patterns. Which have long since fled my brain. Because it’s clear that today I have absolutely NO idea how to solve a Rubik’s Cube.
So on this famous Saturday night of which I speak, I stumbled upon a classic Rubik’s Cube – the 3x3 – which is apparently the world’s best selling toy. And I fiddled with it. And I realized I had no friggin’ clue what to do with it or how.
Luckily, the Rubik’s Cube web site has an absolutely amazing job aid. It pretty much solves it for you:
So there I was, late Saturday night, “solving” the darn thing for the first time in 30 years. It felt so good.
The thing is, I still have no idea how to solve it. If I had as much time on my hands as I did when I was 12, I could probably memorize the patterns. But I don’t, so I’ll let my Saturday night triumph remain a sole effort.
At some point, I will point my son to the job aid and let him work his way through it.
Other facts to geek out on:
- There’s a sub-culture of people who do speed-solves (“speedcubing”, including this 6 year old boy in Spiderman Jammies. (There are many such Rubik’s Cube treasures on YouTube).
- There are even people who can look at the cube and then solve it while blindfolded.
(There’s some connections to be made here about workplace learning and job aids. I’ll let you connect the dots for the moment. It’s Sunday night and I’m not feeling like that much of a geek.)
Special thanks to Jane Bozarth for being there for me on Twitter while I worked through my Rubik’s Cube geek-thing. Jane, I’m still waving my flag!
Photo Credit: Rubik’s Cube Solution by kirtaph
Wednesday, January 13, 2010
- 61.8% of respondents do not have an advanced degree
- 58% of respondents work in corporate ID
Tuesday, January 12, 2010
Friday, January 08, 2010
Friday Jan 8, 2009. 12:00-12:30 pm eastern
Instructional Design Live: Episode 0
This show is a chance to find out about what other people in the ID field are doing. We’ll be interviewing people in this area. As the first show, we’re introducing ourselves – background, work and interests. And what ID means for each of us.
(These are my live-blogged notes while participating in the show myself!)
Joni Dunlap, Associate Professor of Information and Learning Technologies at the University of Colorado
Faculty member School of Education and Human Development – Instructional Design
Post-secondary education settings. Interested in what’s going on at college and university. Lots of emphasis on online teaching in learning. Working with faculty in online teaching and learning.
Deals a lot with issues and challenges in the online learning environment. Issues with establishing social and teacher presence to make strong relationships online soon – so people feel safe; doing bio activities. Do a weekly professional support group for faculty.
Mary Engstrom, Associate Director of Extended Learning Services, University of Montana
Formerly faculty member at university of Ed at U South Dakota. Now at University of Montana. Doing practical side of what used to teach. ID team in continuing education. Support faculty. Interested in creating a professional development support group concept. Trying to create a community of practice in terms of faculty development – that social piece for faculty teaching online.
Marlene Zentz, Instructional Designer, University of Montana
Come from working with college faculty – to create powerful online courses. Now at University of Montana to bring student services online. Forming a top level leadership team to create an audit of where student services is now at. Wondering if any other campuses are doing that kind of effort?
Jennifer Maddrell, Instructional Designer, PhD Student: Old Dominion University
Getting PhD (distance learning) – connection of the distance learner to the university environment. Interested in establishing community for distance students.
Cammy Bean, VP of Learning Design at Kineo
The non-higher ed black sheep of the mix! I’ve been doing “ID” for 15 plus years in the (mostly) corporate sector.
Background in ESL – moved into ID about a year ago – with interest in using technology to improve learning experience for students.
What does Instructional Design mean to us?
ID is in being in service to help learner’s achieve certain goals. “What can I do to create the best possible learning opportunity for students (and myself)?” Ways to create student engagement and creating personal relationships. How do we engage students that lead to their relevant professional development and personal enrichment? Who’s at the center of your work?
Creating engaging learner experiences for helping students achieve personal and professional development – and how to help faculty do that well. “Articulation” – taking bone shards in an arch dig and piecing them together. Getting faculty to articulate what learning outcomes for course are. Her focus is on faculty development.
Conversation (stopped tracking who was talking when!):
Is the strategy (e.g., a threaded discussion) going to support what I want the teacher to get out of this.
Online learning (so many professional and personal distractions) can be really challenging to keep relevant. Need to keep it fun (not in an edutainment sort of way). Students needs to see connection to professional development.
Empowering students by their education. Instructional design involves creating empowering learning environments for students.
Instructional Design as a term can turn people off. Any time you’re contemplating what you want to teach – that’s my definition of ID.
Providing innovative – opportunities for ways to learn – in good practice…design something that is rewarding, empowering fun – and that the instructor enjoys.
Always intrigued by the broad swath of tasks that are covered by the term Instructional Design.
For the future:
With our diverse understandings of ID, our plan is to interview people who work in the field.
Next week: Mary Engstrom to be interviewed. Friday, January 15 at 12:00 pm eastern.
Look for a recording of the session here: http://edtechtalk.com/
- Cammy Bean (me)
- Robert Squires
- Mary Engstrom
- Jennifer Maddrell
- Joni Dunlap
- Marlene Zentz